Chapter 12: Current and future challenges
Section 12.6: Cumulative impacts
Sub-section 12.6.2: National cumulative impacts
There is a growing literature from econometrics and other disciplines exploring the reality of the resource curse.
One highly cited paper is: Sachs, J. D. and A. M. Warner (2001). “The curse of natural resources.” European Economic Review 45(4-6): 827-838. The paper provides evidence that it is real.
This entry in Wikipedia is also helpful
The association between the resource curse and the spread of HIV/AIDS 1990-2008 has been explored by Ismene Gizelis in an unpublished paper entitled “ A quiet killer” presented at the Annual Convention of the International Studies Association (ISA), Montreal, Canada, March 16–19, 2011. “Using the latest available estimates of HIV/AIDS infected populations per total population size (WHO/UNAIDS 2006), we find that countries that gain a higher share of national wealth from oil extraction tend to have higher levels of infected populations, net of a host of relevant controls, such as per capita income, regime type, the rate of prevalence in the neighbourhood, and the history of political violence”.
On the other hand Saleem H. Ali (2009), in “Treasures of the Earth: Need, Greed, and a Sustainable Future”, argues that the resource curse is an illusion and that there are many counter examples.
An IMF working paper by Atsushi Iimi (2006) entitled “Did Botswana escape the resource curse?” argues that good governance tends to link natural resources positively with high capital growth. Botswana is cited as an example.
On the other hand, Botswana also has a very high rate of HIV infection. This raises the question, as yet unanswered, as to whether Botswana’s economic success has nevertheless been bought with a health impact.